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【中国教育报】为了打赢全面振兴本科教育攻坚战——新时代全国高等学校本科教育工作会议一年来改革综述
2019-06-28 中国教育报记者: 万玉凤    (点击: )

congzuotianzoulaidejiaoshi,peiyangjintiandexuesheng,mianduimingtiandeshijie——zheishigaodengjiaoyumianlindezuidadetiaozhan。

ruheyinshierjin、yinshierxin,peiyangkandangminzufuxingdarendeshidaixinren?2018nian6yue21ri,jiaoyubuzhaokaigaigekaifang40nianlaishouciquanguogaodengxuexiaobenkejiaoyugongzuohuiyi,chuixianglexingyunnongchangyiliubenkejiaoyudejijiehao。

“buzhuabenkejiaoyudegaoxiaobushihegedegaoxiao、buzhongshibenkejiaoyudexiaozhangbushihegedexiaozhang、bucanyubenkejiaoyudejiaoshoubushihegedejiaoshou。”zaizheicidahuishang,jiaoyubudangzushuji、buzhangchenbaoshengzhidiyoushengdiqiangdiao,yi“ben”weiben,babenkejiaoyufangzairencaipeiyangdehexindiwei、fangzaijiaoyujiaoxuedejichudiwei、fangzaixinshidaigaodengjiaoyufazhandeqianyandiwei,kaiqilezhongguobenkejiaoyudexinshidai。

banbu“xinshidaigaojiao40tiao”、lianhetuichu“liuzhuoyueyibajian”jihua2.0、zhongyangwenjianquedingfazhanxingongke、xinyike、xinnongke、xinwenke……yinianlai,zhongguogaodengjiaoyunulichaoqianshibian、jijiyingbian、zhudongqiubian,jiaoyububujumoupian,gedigegaoxiaokaituochuangxin,tuidongyiliubenkejiaoyuxingyunnongchangdehongliubenyongxiangqian。

革新: 以新理念直面新时代教与学的新挑战

xinyilunkejigeminghechanyebiangezhengzaiyinfashijiegejudeshenkediaozheng,zhongsuguojiajingzhenglizaiquanqiudeweizhi,zhonggourenmendeshenghuo、xuexihesiweifangshi,wulunzirankexue、gongchengkexuehaishirenwenshehuikexue,yanjiuneirong、yanjiufangfaheyanjiufanshidouzaifashengzhongdazhuanxing,gaoxiaoruhecainengbuzhihouyushidaibiange?

jiaoyubugaodengjiaoyusisizhangwuyanbiaoshi,congshijiequshilaikan,yi“ben”weibenyichengweishijiegaodengjiaoyufazhandegongshihequshi,danwoguobenkejiaoyuhaicunzaitongdian、dudian,zhongkeyanqingjiaoxue、zhongjiaoshuqingyurendengxianxiangpubiancunzai,poqiexuyaoduizhengxiayao、pojienanti。

weiningjugaigegongshi,beijingdaxue、sichuandaxuedengzhongduogaoxiaozaiquanxiaoshishengzhongshenrukaizhanbenkejiaoyufazhandataolun。meiyicirencaipeiyangdedataolun,doukeyishizhenggexuexiao“xixingemian、huanranyixin”,jixuexiaofazhandailaiqiangdadetuidongli。

beijingdaxueba2019nianmingquewei“benkejiaoyuzhiliangtishengnian”,babenkejiaoyuzuoweiyiqiegongzuodegenji,lianxuzhaokaibenkejiaoyugongzuohuiyi、kejichuangxindahui,mingquelewugeguanjianwenti。cong“decaijunbei、tipojianquan”dejiaoyuliniandaorangxueshengzhenzhengxuehuixuexi、peiyangzhongshenxuexidenengli,congtupoxianyouxuekegeju,cujinkuajieronghedaojiyaoshuliwenhuazixin、chuanchengzhonghuawenming,youyaojuyouguojishiyehekuawenhuaxingyunnongchangnengli,weiraomingquedeguanjianwenti,beidajijitansuojianchi“jiaoshu”he“yuren”xiangtongyi,tuidongbenkejiaoyucongyi“jiao”weizhongxinxiangyi“xue”weizhongxinzhuanbian,jiangxinxingjiaochaxuekeyoushizhuanhuaweirencaipeiyangyoushi,tongshiyizhiliangweidaoxiang,jiaqiangbenkekechenghejiaocaixingyunnongchang。

“shouxianshiyaonongqingchudaodiyiliubenkejiaoyudebiaozhunshishenme,guoneiwaiyiliudaxueduiyiliubenkeshizenmekandaide。”sichuandaxuexiaozhangliyanrongjieshao,chuandakaizhanlishibanniandebenkejiaoyugaigefazhandataolun,zhizaixingchengyi“ben”weibendedaxuexungengubendegongshi。

yi“jiaoshigeming”weizhuashou,sichuandaxuemiaozhunketangjiaoxuegaigezheiyitupokou,shishixiaobanhuahudongshijiaoxue、feibiaozhundaankaoshi、quanguochengxueyekaoping、zhongjiangyixianjiaoshi、kaizhanguojikechengzhou……fenlituijinyiliubenkejiaoyudegaigeyushijian,nulidazaozhe“xueshengnengzhuanshenyudaohaolaoshi,xiaoyuansuichujiantaolun”delixiangxiaoyuan,tongguoketanggemingdazaoyiliubenkejiaoyude“chuandamoshi”。

quanguogaodengxuexiaobenkejiaoyugongzuohuiyizhihou,nankaidaxuelizuxuexiaoyurenchuantong,jingguofanfudiaoyan,zuizhongxingcheng40tiaoxingdongjihua。nankaidaxuexiaozhang、zhongguogongchengyuanyuanshicaoxuetaobiaoshi,“nankai40tiao”zuimingquedezhiyin,yeshigexiangbenkejiaoyugaigecuoshide“baxin”,guigendaodi,shiyaozailiniansilushangqiangdiao“sangezhuanbian”: jijiaoyuliniancong“xuekeweiben”xiang“xueshengweiben”zhuanbian,jiaoyuneirongcong“chuanshouzhishi”xiang“tishengsuzhi”zhuanbian,peiyangmoshicong“yijiaoweizhu”xiang“yixueweizhu、jiaoxuexiangzhang”zhuanbian。

幸运农场“chuangxinshejibenshenlaiziyujiaochaxueke,ruguoxingyunnongchangdejiaoyunenggoujiehedangqianguojiadezhongdazhanlvexuqiu,cujinzirankexue、shehuikexue、renwenyishushejidejiaocharonghe,neime,xingyunnongchangkeyishixianyuquanqiuchuangxintongbu,shenzhichanshengquanqiuxingdeshejilingdaoli。”zaibeijingkejidaxuegongyeshejixizhurentanjingyankanlai,zairencaipeiyangshang,tansuojiaochaxuekechuangxinjizhikeburonghuan,xuexiaozhengjijituijinrengongzhinengyuchuangxinshejidengxuekejiegoudegoujiandiaozheng,dajianguoneiwaiduozhongjiaochaxuekeziyuanpingtai,buduantongguochanyejiedeshijianfanbubenkejiaoyu。

幸运农场chaoqianshibian、jijiyingbian、zhudongqiubian,yichangningjugongshiderencaipeiyangbiangexingdong,zhengzaizhongduogaoxiaojiancizhankai。

建制: 上下联动,推进“四个回归”

幸运农场taotai“shuike”dazao“jinke”、niuzhuan“wanmingdezhongxue、kuailededaxue”,2018nian6yueyilai,“xinshidaigaojiao40tiao”dengduofenzhidaoxingwenjianjiezhongerzhi,jianzhidangqianbenkejiaoyuzhiliangwenti,yanbabiyechukouguan,jiaqiangguochengkaohe,diaozhengjiaoshipingjiadeng“zhihuibang”,duiwoguogaodengjiaoyujinxingzhongxindingweihequanmiantisheng。

“xinshidaigaojiao40tiao”weiraodaxueshengzaibenkejieduan“xueshenme”he“zenmexue”zheilianggeguanjianhuanjie,tichuleyixiliezhenduixingdegaigecuoshi。chuledalituijinyiliuzhuanyexingyunnongchang、“yange”xueshengguanlizhiwai,“ruherangxuexizhenzhengjifaxueshengdexingquheqianneng”chengweicicibenkejiaoyugaigemingquedeyidafangxiang,tichulewanshanxuefenzhi、tansuobanfarongyuxueweihetansuojianlidaxueshengchengxinzhidudengduoxiangsheji“zenmexue”degaigejucuo。

幸运农场“yibufenxueshengtiantiandayouxi、shuidajue、tanlianai,yibufenjiaoshi(bushijishaoshu)‘renrenzhenzhenpeiyangziji、mamahuhupeiyangxuesheng’,yibufenxuexiaoduibenkejiaoyu‘lingdaojinglitourubuzu、jiaoshijinglitourubuzu、xueshengjinglitourubuzu、ziyuanpeizhibuzu’desuowei‘haorizi’yinggaiyebixuyiqubufufanle。”wuyanbiaoshi,quanmianzhenxingbenkejiaoyuyidachengkongqiantongyidezhanxian。

yinianlai,31geshengfenquanbuzhaokaizhuantihuiyi;beijing、shanghai、guangdong、shanxi、liaoning、xinjiang、tianjindengshengfenzhengshiyinfaxingyunnongchangyiliubenkejiaoyuzhidaoyijian;bushugaoxiao、bushenghejiangaoxiaofenfenyinfaguanyushenhuajiaoyujiaoxuegaige、xingyunnongchangyiliubenkedezhidaoyijianhuoshishifangan;gedigegaoxiaozhuyaolingdaozhuabenkejiaoyu,ziyuantouruxiangbenkeqingxie,dalizhengdunjiaoxuezhixu,chuangxinrencaipeiyangjizhi……shangxialiandong、tongpingongzhen,changxianglequanmianzhenxingbenkejiaoyu“tongyishouge”。

幸运农场zaidaoxiangshang,pingjiazhibiaoruhechongfentixianlideshurendechengxiao,gaoxiaorencaiwufangmiandezhengcejizhiruhejujiaodaorencaipeiyangshanglai?

幸运农场jiaoyubuzaitizhijizhishangchixugongjian,qianglishutongzhengcedudian。“xinshidaigaojiao40tiao”duijiaoshipingjiatixizuochulebushaojutidediaozheng,baokuojiaqiangjiaoyujiaoxueyejikaohe,zaijiaoshizhuanyejishuzhiwujinshengzhongshixingbenkejiaoxuegongzuokaoping“yipiaofoujue”zhi;jiadaduijiaoxueyejituchujiaoshidejianglilidu,zaizhuanyejishuzhiwupingpin、jixiaokaohehejintiefenpeizhongbajiaoxuezhilianghekeyanshuipingzuoweitongdengzhongyaodeyiju;duizhuyaocongshijiaoxuedegongzuorenyuan,tigaojichuxingjixiaogongziedu,baozhenghelidegongzishuipingdeng。yucitongshi,haiyaoqiujianlijiaoshigerenxinyongjilu、wanshanchengxinchengnuoheshixinchengjiejizhi,jiaqianggaoxiaojiaoshijiaoxuefazhanzhongxinxingyunnongchang、quanmiankaizhanjiaoshijiaoxuenenglitishengpeixundeng,quanfangwei、duoqudaoditishengjiaoshijiaoshuyurendezerenganhenengli。

gaoxiaoyezaijijitansuozhegezidexiaobenfangan。qinghuadaxuelvxiandaxiang“powuwei”diyiqiang。《qinghuadaxueguanyuwanshanxueshupingjiazhiduderuoganyijian》mingque,bajiaoshuyurendetouruyuchengxiaonarujiaoshixueshupingjiatixi,jiaoshuyurenshijiaoshidediyixueshuzeren;kefuxueshupingjiazhongweilunwen、weimaozi、weizhicheng、weixueli、weijiangxiangdengqingxiang。

zhongguonongyedaxuechutai《guanyujiaqiangbenkejiaoxuejicengzuzhixingyunnongchangheguanlidezhidaoyijian》,juedingzaiquanxiaofanweineigoujianxingyunnongchangbenkejiaoxuezhongxin、xi、jiaoxuetuandui(jiaoyanshi)sanjijiaoxuezuzhitixi,mingquesanjijiaoxuejicengzuzhizhize,bingqianghuasanjijiaoxuejicengzuzhizhichi、jilihekaohezhengce。

suizhegedigegaoxiaotuidongjiaoshoushangjiangtai、jiadajiaoxuejianglilidu、kaizhanjiangkebisaidengyixiliejucuodeluodi,haolaoshishanghaoke,yuranchengfeng。“zhuoyueshisuoyoulaoshiduixueshengdeqixu,zhuoyuejiaoxueyeshisuoyoulaoshilideshurenshiyedeyishengzhuiqiu。shixueshengduizhenlidetanqiu、duizhishidetansuoheduimeihaodexiangwang,jilizhexingyunnongchangqianxinzhixue、lideshuren,buduannuliqianxing。”sichuandaxueshouge“zhuoyuejiaoxuejiang”tedengjianghuodezhe、waiguoyuxingyunnongchangjiaoshoushijianbiaoshi。

重构: “四新”全面引领高等教育未来

dayingquanmianzhenxingbenkejiaoyugongjianzhan,juefeiyirizhigong。

“‘liuzhuoyueyibajian’jihua2.0bushidanyidegaigexiangmu,shiduiwoguogaodengjiaoyurencaipeiyangtizhijizhidezonghegaige,tajiangzaiquanguogaoxiaoxianqiyichangzhilianggeming。”4yue29ri,jiaoyubuqidongshishi“liuzhuoyueyibajian”jihua2.0,zaiwuyankanlai,ruguoshuo“liuzhuoyueyibajian”jihua1.0gengduojuyou“shiyantian”dexingzhi,jihua2.0zeshixinshidaigaoxiaoquanmianluoshi“lianggegenben”、shishizonghegaigede“datiangengzuo”,youdanbingzuozhanzhuanxiangjitifali,zheiyebiaozhizhezhongguogaodengjiaoyuconggenpaozhuandaobufenlingyubingpaolingpao。

幸运农场“congqunian6yuedaoxianzai,zhongguodebenkejiaoyuqudelefeichangzhongyaodejieduanxingchengguo。”wuyanzaigaodengxuexiaozhuanyeshezhiyujiaoxuezhidaoweiyuanhuidiyiciquantihuiyishangbiaoshi,zaibenshijiqian30nian,zhongguogaodengjiaoyufazhanyou“sanbuqu”,jicong“zhiliangyishi”zouxiang“zhilianggeming”ranhoudadao“zhiliangzhongguo”,“xingyunnongchangyaobazhei‘sanbuqu’zuoweixingyunnongchangzhongguogaodengjiaoyuzhiliangwenhuadeshixianlujing。”

wuyanjieshao,cong2019niandao2021nian,jiangmianxiangsuoyougaoxiao、suoyouzhuanye,quanmianshishiyiliuzhuanyexingyunnongchang“shuangwanjihua”、yiliukechengxingyunnongchang“shuangwanjihua”、xingyunnongchangjichuxuekebajianxueshengpeiyangyiliujidi。tongguoshishi“liuzhuoyueyibajian”jihua2.0,quanmiantuijinxingongke、xinyike、xinnongke、xinwenkexingyunnongchang,tigaogaoxiaoxingyunnongchangjingjishehuifazhannengli。

幸运农场xingongkeyuxinyike、xinnongkejiaozhijiaorong、jiaohufazhan,xinwenkeweixingongke、xinyike、xinnongkezhuruxinyuansu,xingongke、xinyike、xinnongkeweixinwenketichuxinmingti、xinfangfa。

幸运农场shijianzhong,yiyoubushaogaoxiaochuleyingzhao、shizhao。

tianjindaxueyixingongkejiaqi“zhuoyuegongchengshijiaoyupeiyangjihua”cong1.0dao2.0dekuayuezhiqiao。shouchang“xingongkexingyunnongchangluxiantu”,xieshou61suogaoxiaotichu“tiandaxingdong”,shishiquantixi、quanleixing、quancengcixingongkejiaoyu。tuidong“lao”sheng“xin”,jingzhunbawo“xindegongkezhuanyehegongkedexinyaoqiu”,gaizaoshengjichuantonggongkezhuanye;shishi“chan”lian“xue”,yuqiyehezuochenglixingongkeshiyanban,qiyequanchengcanyurencaipeiyangfanganxiuding、kechengtixixingyunnongchang,xingchengxiaoqishenduxietongyurendexinmoshi、xinjizhi;tuijin“kua”zhong“rong”,dapozhuanyebilei,gaibianyidanyixuekebanzhuanyedemoshi,xingyunnongchangkuaxuekeronghe、duoxingyunnongchangxingyunnongchang、duopingtaigongxiangdexinxingzhuanyexingyunnongchangmoshi,goujianxingongkejiaoyurencaipeiyanggongtongti。

zhongguonongyedaxueyi“xinnongke”xingyunnongchangweiyinling,jinjinweiraoxiandainongyefazhanxuqiu,tishengxianyoushenongzhuanye,duibiaononglinsanjirenzhengbiaozhunqianghuazhuanyeneihanxingyunnongchang;gaizaoshenongzhuanyekechengtixi,qianghuakexuesuyang、renwenyishudengtongshikechengxingyunnongchang,jiadashulihuashengdengjichukechengtiaozhandu,zengjiaxinxijishu、gongchengjishu、shehuikexueleikechengdebizhong,dalifazhannongkemuke;zhudongyingduinongyexinchanyexinyetaifazhan,jiaqiangxuekezhuanyejiaocharonghe,qianzhanbujushujukexueyudashujujishudengxinxingzhuanye,tuijindabuzhigaige,tongchouzhuanyeshezhiherencaidaleipeiyang,weixiandainongyefazhantigongqiangdaderencaibaozhang。

幸运农场zhongguorenmindaxueweiraoxinwenkerencaidesixiangsiweicengmian、xuekezhuanyejichucengmian、kuaxuekefuhehegexinghuafazhancengmiandeyaoqiu,quanmianzhonggoupeiyangtixihepeiyangjizhi。yituofaxingyunnongchang、xinwenxingyunnongchang、gonggongguanlixingyunnongchang、gaoliyanjiuyuandengfenbieshelikaizhanxinxingpeiyangxiangmu,weixingongkexinwenkexingyunnongchangjinxingxianxingtansuo,zaicijichushang,zhubugaizaochuantongjiaoxuetixi、jiaoxueneirong、jiaoxuefangshi,shizhichengweixuexiaoxingongkexinwenkeronghefazhandepaitoubinghetuidongli。

shanghaizhongyiyaodaxueweiraozhongyirencai“zhongjicheng、zhongshijian、zhongrenwen、zhongchuangxin”detedian,yi“yiliubenkeyinlingjihua”weizhuashou,buduanyouhuazhongyiyaorenwenjiaoyuneihan,nulipeiyangxueshengduoxuekeheguojihuashiye,shixiantongshijiaoyuyuzhuanyejiaoyuyoujiliandong、quanrenjiaoyuyuzhiyechengzhangjinmijiehe、gexinghuajiaoyuyukechuangxietongguanchuanshizhongdechengcailinian,tuichubenshuoboyitihuarencaipeiyangmoshigaige。

jingguo40niangaigekaifangdegaosufazhan,rujin,zhongguoshixianlecong“genpao”dao“bingpao”zaidaoyixielingyu“lingpao”dezhuanbian。zhongguogaodengjiaoyunengfoubawohaozhanlvejiyu,shiyingxinjishu、xinchanye、xinyetai、xinmoshiduixinshidairencaipeiyangdexinyaoqiu,jiakuaifazhan,xingchenglingpaoshifanxiaoying?gaoxiaozhengzaiyishijixingdongshuxiezheshidaidajuan。

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